CTBUH Research Paper Library

The CTBUH Research Paper Library contains hundreds of papers published by our members on an extensive range of disciplines and subjects. From inception, design and construction, to the occupation and sustainability of tall buildings and future cities, these papers are of the highest standards and are searchable by numerous categories.








30 Recently Featured Papers
Better Public Spaces: Developing Environmental Guidelines for the City of London
Featured in Aug 2020 – CTBUH Journal 2020 Issue III
Ender Ozkan, RWDI; Gwyn Richards, City of London

The City of London is expected to see a significant growth in the number of tall buildings in the next decade, with several tall buildings nearing completion and many more…

Skybridges of Significance
Featured in Aug 2020 – CTBUH Journal 2020 Issue III
CTBUH Research

Linking tall buildings with horizontal spaces, whether purely for circulation or containing programming, has been a subject of fascination for as long as tall buildings have existed. In recent years,…

Skybridges: State of the Art
Featured in Aug 2020 – CTBUH Journal 2020 Issue III
Antony Wood, Peng Du & Daniel Safarik, CTBUH

For more than a century, architects and urban visionaries have foretold of three-dimensional cities, with tall buildings linked by skybridges forming a new kind of urban fabric. Rapid urbanization and…

How to Make a Tall Building “Drone-Ready”?
Featured in Apr 2020 – CTBUH Journal 2020 Issue II
Emma Humphreys, Charles Russell Speechlys

Given the convergent trends of increasing commercial use of drones and flying taxis on the near horizon, and that of increased high-density vertical development occurring in many cities worldwide, we…

Tall + Urban Innovation 2020: Dominant Trends
Featured in Apr 2020 – CTBUH Journal 2020 Issue II
CTBUH Research

Providing a global overview of tall building development, design and construction, the CTBUH Awards Program and related Tall + Urban Innovation Conference annually survey projects, technologies, and approaches currently reshaping…

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Predictions vs. Reality
Featured in Apr 2020 – CTBUH Journal 2020 Issue II
CTBUH Research

In the first edition of the 2012 Journal, CTBUH published a Tall Buildings in Numbers study titled Tallest 20 in 2020: Era of the Megatall—The Projected World’s Tallest 20 Skyscrapers…

Chicago Building Code Modernization: Comparison of Prototype Building Designs
Featured in Apr 2020 – Chicago Building Code Modernization: Comparison of Prototype Building Designs
John Viise & Matthew Cummins & Alberto Guarise & Daniel Koch, DeSimone Consulting Engineers

This paper develops three prototype buildings that would be subject to the new structural standards, all of which can use prescriptive code provisions for reference. The Chicago Building Code (CBC)…

Chicago Building Code Modernization: Energy Performance and Sustainability Implications
Featured in Apr 2020 – Chicago Building Code Modernization: Energy Performance and Sustainability Implications
Oliver Baumann & Ajit V. Naik, Baumann Consulting

This paper reviews the changes between the Chicago Building Code (CBC) and International Building Code (IBC)'s updated and previous versions to assist project teams in making informed early-phase design decisions…

Chicago Building Code Modernization: Implications for High-Rise Safety
Featured in Apr 2020 – Chicago Building Code Modernization: Implications for High-Rise Safety
Erik Harris, Goettsch Partners

This paper studies the ways in which the CBC will affect some basic elements of the schematic floor plan and design for a high-rise office tower greater than 400 feet…

Chicago Building Code Modernization: Implications for Tenant Remodels in High-Rise Buildings
Featured in Apr 2020 – Chicago Building Code Modernization: Implications for Tenant Remodels in High-Rise Buildings
Lori Chandler, Epstein

This paper intends to analyze the application of the new Chicago Building Code (CBC) to a typical tenant remodel of a business occupancy in a high-rise building, highlighting the differences…

Affordable High-Rise Workforce Housing: Essential to the Future of Cities
Featured in Feb 2020 – 2019 Chicago 10th World Congress Proceedings - 50 Forward | 50 Back
Steven Baldridge, Baldridge & Associates Structural Engineering

Often when new high-rise developments are announced in cities, focus is on the positive impacts such as job creation, increased local tax revenues and social pride in iconic structures. A…

Bringing an Icon into the Future: Willis Tower
Featured in Feb 2020 – 2019 Chicago 10th World Congress Proceedings - 50 Forward | 50 Back
Stephen Katz, Gensler

Few buildings are as iconic as Willis Tower. Generations of Chicagoans have a collective memory of this building playing a role in their entire lives. Chicagoans mark time with Willis…

The Future of Sustainable Cities and How Tall Building Urbanism has Evolved
Featured in Feb 2020 – 2019 Chicago 10th World Congress Proceedings - 50 Forward | 50 Back
James Parakh, City of Toronto Planning Division

In the past 50 years, tall buildings and their relationship to streets and open spaces has evolved through various scales and typologies. As place-makers, how do they contribute to a…

Robotics in Construction: The Next 50 Years
Featured in Feb 2020 – 2019 Chicago 10th World Congress Proceedings - 50 Forward | 50 Back
Dario Trabucco, CTBUH

Although As the construction industry responds to emerging technologies, the way buildings are designed, built, and managed will continue to shift. Parametric design, BIM, and virtual reality are just the…

Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2019
Featured in Dec 2019 – CTBUH Journal 2020 Issue I
CTBUH Research

The year 2019 was remarkable for the tall building industry, with 26 supertall buildings (300 meters or taller) completed, the most in any year. This is the second consecutive year…

Eliminate the “Void Loophole”?
Featured in Aug 2019 – CTBUH Journal Issue III
Elizabeth Goldstein, The Municipal Art Society of New York; Bart A. Sullivan, McNamara Salvia

Because regulations in New York City specify the total number floors a building can have, based on its location and lot size, but do not specify floor-to-floor heights, some residential…

From Object to Place: A New, Highly Public Home for a Venerable Company
Featured in Aug 2019 – CTBUH Journal Issue III
Christoph Felger, David Chipperfield Architects

The new headquarters for Amorepacific, South Korea’s largest beauty company, is located in the center of Seoul, on a site which has been occupied by the company since 1956. It…

Hanging Out With Façade Inspectors
Featured in Aug 2019 – CTBUH Journal Issue III
Amy DeLuca & Julie Foster, Consulting Associates of New York (CANY)

Among the hazards of cities with tall buildings is the prospect of objects falling to the streets below. After a woman was killed by a piece of falling masonry in…

Highest Special-Purpose Spaces
Featured in Aug 2019 – CTBUH Journal Issue III
Since humans first began constructing tall buildings, history has been cluttered with claims of all manner of “highest” records. In this study, we examine those claims to unconventional or “special-purpose”…

Using AI to Simulate Urban Vertical Growth
Featured in Aug 2019 – CTBUH Journal Issue III
Rafael Ivan Pazos Perez

This research explores the use of artificial intelligence to simulate how cities will grow vertically. By learning how cities have evolved in the recent past, genetic algorithms can successfully vertical…

Which HVAC Configuration Offers the Highest Efficiency for Tall Buildings?
Featured in Aug 2019 – CTBUH Journal Issue III
Michael Tobias, New York Engineers

Buildings account for 36% of global energy consumption and 40% of carbon dioxide emissions*. Therefore, energy efficiency is a lucrative investment for building owners, and an effective way to reduce…

Wind Effects on Permeable Tall Building Envelopes: Issues and Potentialities
Featured in Aug 2019 – CTBUH Journal Issue III
Andrea Giachetti, University of Florence; Gianni Bartoli, University of Florence; Claudio Mannini, University of Florence

A comprehensive conclusion about the effects of wind on permeable building envelopes (PBEs) remains elusive. The external layer permeability, the gap width, and the internal compartmentalizations are only a few…

Reinventing Woolworth: Adaptive Reuse of a Historic Skyscraper
Featured in Jan 2019 – CTBUH Journal, 2015 Issue IV
Gary Steficek & Petr Vancura, Gilsanz Murray Steficek

This article presents a case study of structural and logistical issues involved in the adaptive reuse of an early 20th-century skyscraper, and outlines the case for achieving sustainability through such…

Using Height-Relative Variables To Design Tall Buildings
Featured in Dec 2018 – CTBUH Journal 2018 Issue III
John Jory, Queensland University of Technology

This paper investigates height-variable phenomena in the urban context, and their relevance to the design and performance of tall buildings. It proposes a design approach relevant to variable conditions as…

A Vertical Transportation Analytical Tool For the Construction of Tall Buildings
Featured in Nov 2018 – CTBUH Journal 2018 Issue III
Julien Grange & Oscar Savage, Multiplex Construction Europe

The construction phase of 22 Bishopsgate, London, presented many challenges, but one of the greatest issues to overcome was the requirement to ensure comfortable and efficient labor movements, material deliveries,…

Out of Thin Air: The Potential for High-Rise Housing Over Rail Lines
Featured in Oct 2018 – CTBUH Journal 2018 Issue III
Bill Price, WSP

Cities are facing a crisis in providing housing and managing population growth. The author’s team has identified sufficient land associated with railway infrastructure to yield more than 250,000 new homes…

Inter-Story Isolation Systems (IIS) for Tall Buildings: Design Considerations
Featured in Sep 2018 – CTBUH Journal, 2018 Issue II
Elena Mele, Diana Faiella, University of Naples Federico II

Inter-story isolation systems (IIS) are currently gaining significant popularity, mainly in Japan, where more than 60 applications have been realized in the past 20 years. But the conceptual framework for…

Helping Cities Plan High-Rise Growth
Featured in Aug 2018 – CTBUH Journal, 2018 Issue I
David Pontarini, Orson Sedmina, Hariri Pontarini Architects

Two studies, both completed for the City of Toronto, are focused on helping cities navigate the issues associated with high-rise growth. The first, the Downtown Tall Buildings study, developed a…

Taking the Corporate Campus Vertical
Featured in Jul 2018 – CTBUH Journal, 2018 Issue II
Jonathan Ward, NBBJ; Jiemin Ding, TJAD; Tim Etherington, Gensler

The Tencent Seafront Towers bring a novel concept – the “vertical campus” – to Shenzhen. In housing the corporate headquarters of the fourth-largest internet company in the world, the two-tower,…

Brisbane's Subtropical Livability Goals and High-Rise Apartments: Vision and Reality
Featured in Jun 2018 – CTBUH Journal, 2018 Issue II
Rosemary Kennedy, SubTropical Cities Consultancy

Climate-based design is very significant in the Brisbane planning context. Brisbane City Council’s Vision 2031 aspires to capitalize on the city’s enviable subtropical climate and be a city renowned for…